Relative to the incidence of all cancers, oral and oropharyngeal (is a middle part of the throat that includes the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate, and the walls of the pharynx) squamous cell carcinomas (cancer in epithelium) represent about 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. Annually, more than 36000 new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer are expected to occur in men and women in the United States. The ratio of cases in men and women is now about 2 to 1. Previously, this ratio was 3 to 1; this shift has been attributed to an increase in smoking by women and to their longer life expectancy.
Of all types of nontraumatic ulceration that affect oral mucosa, aphthous ulcers (canker sores) are probably the most common. The incidence ranges from 20% to 60%, depending on the population studied. Prevalence tends to be higher in professional persons, in those in upper socioeconomic groups, and in those who do not smoke.
During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims all over the world will be fasting. One of the most common complaints during fasting is the bad breath that people experience. This condition, in medical terms, is called halitosis. What causes bad breath and how can it be prevented?
Candidiasis (Figure 1) is a common opportunistic oral mycotic (fungal) infection (opportunistic infection is an infection caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoan pathogens that take advantage of a host with a weakened immune system) that develops in the presence of one of several predisposing conditions. Clinical presentation is variable and is dependent on whether the condition is acute or chronic.
Its caused by Candida albicans and other candida species in oral flora which requires a predisposing factors along with opportunistic growth.
There are three main types of candidiasis, acute, chronic & mucocutaneous.
Actinic, or solar, cheilitis (Figure 1) represents accelerated tissue degeneration of the vermilion (dry mucous membrane) of the lips (The vermilion border is the normally sharp demarcation between the lip (red colored) and the adjacent normal skin), especially the lower lip, as a result of chronic exposure to sunlight; it is considered to represent a potentially premalignant condition as the radiant energy not only affects the epithelium, but also the superficial supporting connective tissue. This condition occurs almost exclusively in whites and is especially prevalent in those with fair skin.
Geographic Tongue (Figure 1) is a condition of a unknown cause and is more prevalent among whites and blacks than Mexican Americans, and it is strongly associated with fissure tongue but is inversely associated with cigarette smoking. In a few patients, emotional stress may enhance the process. Geographic tongue has been associated, coincidentally, with several different conditions, including psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, Reiter’s syndrome, and atopy.
Hairy tongue is a clinical term referring to a condition of filiform papillary overgrowth on the dorsal surface of the tongue of variable color (Figure 1).
Resorption of tooth is the process that involves breaking down the tooth either internally or externally. Generally the cause is unknown and may result is some unwanted consequences (Figure 1). Radiographically its defined as an area of radiolucency.
Dentinogenesis Imperfecta also known as (hereditary) opalescent dentin is a congenital disorder affecting the dentin of both primary and permanent dentitions (Figure 1 & 2).
Amelogenesis Imperfecta is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of Enamel formation that affect both dentitions (Primary Dentition & Permanent Dentition). Most cases of amelogenesis imperfecta fall into one of three clinical types: hypoplastic (disturbance in formation) or hypocalcified (disturbance in mineralization process) or hypomaturation. These are based on different inheritance patterns, clinical appearances, and radiographic features (Figure 1,2 & 3).